In May of 1981, a 350 ft wide and 75 ft deep cover-collapse sinkhole opened up in the town of Winter Park, Florida, swallowing a car dealership, the town swimming pool, and parts of two streets. The resulting lake, Lake Rose , is named in honor of a resident whose home was destroyed by the sinkhole. see more
Sudden and sometimes catasrophic subsidence associated with collapse of underground voids is commonly triggered by declines in groundwater levels and by focused infiltration of water through subsurface materials (Galloway and others, 2000). As the limestone rock of the Floridan aquifer system dissolves over time, voids form and the ability of the rock to support the weight of overlying soils decreases. Groundwater provides additional mechanical support for aquifer materials and overlying soils; however, during periods of intense groundwater pumping, water levels can fall increasing the likelyhood of catastrophic sinkhole formation.
Landuse changes can cause focused runoff and and infiltration of surface water resulting in the erosion of sinkhole-prone earth materials (Tihansky, 1999).
Springs occur within many different landscapes from hillsides and valleys to swamps and coastal areas—and even the ocean floor. They are classified based on the average discharge with the largest springs classified as first magnitude which flow at an average rate of 100 cubic feet per second (cfs) or greater. Second magnitude springs flow at an average rate of 10—100 cfs and third magnitude springs at 1—10 cfs. There are more than 800 inventoried springs in the southeastern USA, 751 of which are located in Florida, 17 in Alabama, and 56 in Georgia. Notably, 35 of these springs are first magnitude.
Source: Jennifer Adler Photography
In Part 1, viewers are introduced to a team of underwater cave explorers, led by Wes Skiles and including Jill Heinerth and Tom Morris. The dive team is tracked by radio expert Brian Pease using a custom designed transmitter and receiver. The goal: trace the underground system of caves and tunnels and the journey of water beneath society on its way to springs..
In Part 2, we learn how underwater caves are formed. As the dive team explores the caves, they find disturbing signs of neglect in the form of trash and human debris deep in the aquifer, the source of drinking water. The team discovers the source of the debris -- sinkholes used as dumping grounds.
In Part 3, the ground team uses the radio receiver to track the divers as they travel under golf courses, homes, industrial areas and even a restaurant. The divers struggle through some tight cracks and ultimately find their way to a larger passage, and eventually, an opening to the surface.
This video follows the flow of stormwater from downtown Tallahassee, Florida to Wakulla Spring. It is intended to educate Floridians about how water reaches the Floridan aquifer and ultimately reappears as a spring. What may be surprising about this journey is how many urban settings this water must travel through before becoming our drinking water and also the source of our beloved springs that we use for recreation and tourism.
In a leafy suburb near Tampa, Florida, on February 28, 2013, a giant hole opened up under the bedroom floor of Jeffrey Bush, swallowing him as he slept. His body was never found. Bush was a victim of a sinkhole—a worldwide hazard that lurks wherever limestone and other water-soluble rocks underpin the soil. Filled with compelling eyewitness video of dramatic collapses, and following scientists as they explore the underlying forces behind these natural disasters, NOVA travels the globe to investigate what it's like to have your world vanish beneath your feet.
An overview of the importance of karst terrains for human and environmental health from the University of South Florida Libraries.
On a cold winter morning you can see steam, like smoke, rising from the chimney. Thus, the early settlers gave the name Devil's Den. Crystal clear water, year round 72 degree temperatures, ancient rock formations with stalactites, fossil beds, and much more. Devil's Den is truly a natural wonder. Bring the family and enjoy a day of fun and relaxation at Devil's Den.
The Florida Geological Survey Digital Collection includes historic resources from the Florida Geological Survey (FGS). FGS is an Office which reports directly to the Deputy Secretary for Land & Recreation in the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The mission of the FGS is to collect, interpret, disseminate, store and maintain geologic data, thereby contributing to the responsible use and understanding of Florida's natural resources, and to conserve the State of Florida's oil and gas resources and minimize environmental impacts from exploration and production operations.
Florida Aquifer adventure shows the relationship between the groundwater and the springs in Florida. Wakulla Springs is located near Tallahassee Florida, this is the largest, deepest freshwater spring in the world. http://wakullasprings.org.
This video shows Dover Sink capturing 10 Mgal/d of river flow following a heavy rain event in central Florida during June of 2006.
Video made by Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Save Our Suwannee, Inc, a not-for-profit organizaiton whose primary mission is to restore and protect the springs, rivers, lakes streams, ponds and wildlife of the Suwannee Basin.
Video by St. John's County Water Management District. South West Florida. Save Our Suwannee, Inc, A not-for-profit organization whose primary mission is to restore and protect the springs, rivers, lakes streams, ponds and wildlife of the Suwannee Basin.
City of Ocala Water & Sewer Director Jeff Halcomb discusses Ocala's newest water find within the city limits. While the initial drilling of the well was a financial chance of sorts, having invested in such a project with this outcome will end up saving the city hundreds of millions of dollars in the long run.
This animation first shows the topography of the state of Florida and neighboring states of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama from a bird's eye view over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, followed by moving the viewpoint downward to show the subsurface in profile. Next, a vertical plane (extending transverse to the axis of the Florida peninsula) cuts through the layers, moving from south to north to show in cross section the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico (blue), surficial aquifer system (green), upper confining layer (yellow), and Floridan aquifer system (orange). Finally, the vertical plane cuts back through the layers, moving from north to south, followed by moving the viewpoint back to a bird's eye view.
Produced by Joann Dixon (USGS) using CTech's EVS Pro software.
This animation first shows the topography of the state of Florida and neighboring states of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama from a bird's eye view positioned over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, followed by moving the viewpoint downward to show the subsurface in profile and rotating the viewpoint counterclockwise stopping within the central Gulf of Mexico. Next, a vertical plane (extending parallel to the axis of the Florida peninsula) cuts through the layers, moving from west to east to show in cross section the Gulf of Mexico (blue), surficial aquifer system (green), upper confining layer (yellow), Floridan aquifer system (orange), and Atlantic Ocean (blue). Finally, the vertical plane cuts back through the layers, moving from east to west, followed by rotating the viewpoint back to the southeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Produced by Joann Dixon (USGS) using CTech's EVS Pro software.
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