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Caribbean-Florida Water Science Center

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FLORIDA PROJECTS

USGS Florida Water Science Center Borehole Geophysical Logging Program

Project Chief: Michael A. Wacker
Email: mwacker@usgs.gov
Cooperator: Government agencies
Period of Project: Ongoing

Problem Statement

The borehole-geophysical logging program of the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Florida Water Science Center (CFWSC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many investigations including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

Click to enlarge - Figure 1. Logging assistant preparing to log with the acoustic borehole logging tool in offshore Biscayne Bay, southeastern Florida.


Figure 1. Logging assistant preparing to log with the acoustic borehole logging tool in offshore Biscayne Bay, southeastern Florida.

 

Click to enlarge - Figure 2. Typical log montage produced by the CFWSC borehole geophysical group with 20 vertical tracks of log data displayed. From left to right for this example the tracks include: (1) depth, (2) formation name and lithology, (3) cyclostratigraphy, (4) core recovery, (5) lithofacies, (6) this section description, (7) digital optical borehole image, (8) porosity logs (with whole core data), (9) caliper, (10) acoustic borehole images, (11) borehole fluid temperature and fluid resistivity, (12) heat-pulse flowmeter, (13), spinner flowmeter logged downhole, (14) spinner flowmeter logged uphole, (15) flowzone, (16) natural gamma ray, (17) induction conductivity and resistivity, (18) spontaneous potential and single-point resistivity, (19) Stoneley-wave amplitude and whole-core permeability, and (20) compressional-,  shear-, and Stonely-wave velocities.


Figure 2. Typical log montage produced by the CFWSC borehole geophysical group with 20 vertical tracks of log data displayed. From left to right for this example the tracks include: (1) depth, (2) formation name and lithology, (3) cyclostratigraphy, (4) core recovery, (5) lithofacies, (6) this section description, (7) digital optical borehole image, (8) porosity logs (with whole core data), (9) caliper, (10) acoustic borehole images, (11) borehole fluid temperature and fluid resistivity, (12) heat-pulse flowmeter, (13), spinner flowmeter logged downhole, (14) spinner flowmeter logged uphole, (15) flowzone, (16) natural gamma ray, (17) induction conductivity and resistivity, (18) spontaneous potential and single-point resistivity, (19) Stoneley-wave amplitude and whole-core permeability, and (20) compressional-, shear-, and Stonely-wave velocities.

 

Click to enlarge - Figure 2. Typical log montage produced by the CFWSC borehole geophysical group with 20 vertical tracks of log data displayed. From left to right for this example the tracks include: (1) depth, (2) formation name and lithology, (3) cyclostratigraphy, (4) core recovery, (5) lithofacies, (6) this section description, (7) digital optical borehole image, (8) porosity logs (with whole core data), (9) caliper, (10) acoustic borehole images, (11) borehole fluid temperature and fluid resistivity, (12) heat-pulse flowmeter, (13), spinner flowmeter logged downhole, (14) spinner flowmeter logged uphole, (15) flowzone, (16) natural gamma ray, (17) induction conductivity and resistivity, (18) spontaneous potential and single-point resistivity, (19) Stoneley-wave amplitude and whole-core permeability, and (20) compressional-,  shear-, and Stonely-wave velocities.


Figure 3. Example of a new high resolution optical borehole image of a three-well monitoring cluster. The image data was collected at three different settings (Well C was the lowest resolution and Well A the highest) to determine the best resolution for image data collection in shallow south Florida wells.

Note: Click on image to download the file.

Objectives

Provide borehole geophysical logging capabilities and expertise to meet project requirements for the Caribbean Florida Water Science Center.

Approach

In addition to acquiring standard borehole-log data such as caliper, gamma, spontaneous potential, and electromagnetic induction, the CFWSC utilizes new technologies and procedures to generate advanced logs, including digital optical borehole image logs and electromagnetic flow meter logs. A digital optical borehole televiewer equipped with a high-resolution camera can create a detailed 360-degree image of the borehole wall and simultaneously collect borehole deviation data. Applications of the digital optical borehole images include:

  1. accurately determine the depths for a well-completion interval,
  2. position a recovered core to its proper depth,
  3. acquire a high-resolution borehole image that serves as a surrogate for intervals having no core recovery, and
  4. characterize aquifer pore systems.

Fracture and bedding plane orientations also can be determined, because borehole images can be oriented to magnetic north. Various log presentation software can be used to display these images, as well as standard logs on multilog-paper displays up to 36-inch wide. A digital copy of the display can be viewed on a computer using non-proprietary software readers.

Standard borehole flow meters such as spinner and heat pulse flow meters are available to collect borehole flow data and a new electromagnetic flow meter that works well in medium flow velocities, generates a continuous log of flow velocity and direction, and can make stationary measurements like the heat pulse flow meter. The logs generated by the electromagnetic flow meter can help show the relative transmissivity of flow zones within a well. A fluid meter built into the tool also displays changes in temperature and fluid resistivity which also aids in identification of flow zones.

Results

Some recent projects that have been completed or that have provided geophysical data include:

  • Southwest Florida Water Management District: Borehole image and sonic data collected in new and existing Floridan aquifer system ROMP (Remote Observation and Monitoring Program) wells.
  • South Florida Water Management District: Borehole logging of new Biscayne aquifer coreholes and borehole image of Floridan aquifer system wells.
  • Miami-Dade County: Borehole logging of new Biscayne aquifer coreholes and borehole image of Floridan aquifer system wells.
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Borehole logging of new Biscayne aquifer coreholes, surficial aquifer system borehole around Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD), and grout wall inspection angled borings as part of the HHD restoration.
  • Florida Power and Light: Open File Report of geophysical data collected from 14 coreholes in vicinity of Turkey Point Power Generation Facility.
  • Biscayne National Park: Logging of Biscayne aquifer monitor well.
  • Florida Water Science Center: Surficial and Floridan aquifers around the state as needed to support ongoing projects.

Information Products

Raw Data, Log Montage displaying collected logs, USGS Open File Report (OFR), or USGS Scientific Investigation Report (SIR) as needed by cooperator.

McBride, W.S., and Wacker, M.A., 2015, Depth-dependent groundwater quality sampling at City of Tallahassee test well 32, Leon County, Florida, 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20141255, 13 p. and 2 appendixes, https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20141255.

Wacker, M.A., Cunningham, K.J., and Williams, J.H., 2014, Geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks of the Biscayne aquifer in central Miami-Dade County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 20145138, 66 p., https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145138.

Wacker, M.A., 2010, Tools and data acquisition of borehole geophysical logging for the Florida Power & Light Company Turkey Point Power Plant in support of a groundwater, surface-water, and ecological monitoring plan, Miami-Dade County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1260, 5 p., plus appendix, https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1260/.

Wacker, M.A. and Cunningham, K.J., 2008, Borehole Geophysical logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2008-3098, 4p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3098/

Wacker, M.A., 2015, Borehole Geophysical Data Collected during Construction of Biscayne Aquifer Monitoring Well Cluster at the S-356 Pump Station, Miami-Dade County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release (To access data and metadata please contact: Mike Wacker)

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