ABSTRACT: Water quality of the surficial aquifer system was evaluated at one exfiltration pipe, two ponds (detention and retention), and two swales in central Florida, representing three runoff detention methods, to detect any effects from infiltrating highway runoff. Concentrations of major ions, metals, and nutrients were measured in ground water and bottom sediments from 1984 through 1986.
At each study area, constituent concentrations in ground water near the structure were compared to concentrations in ground water from an upgradient control site. Ground-water quality data also were pooled by detention method and statistically compared to detect any significant differences between methods.
Analysis of variance of the rank-converted water-quality data at the exfiltration pipe indicated that mean concentrations of 14 of 26 water-quality variables are significantly different among sampling locations (the pipe, unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and the control well). Most of these differences are between the unsaturated zone and the other locations. Only phosphorus is significantly higher in ground water near the pipe than in ground water at the control well.
Analysis of variance of rank-converted water-quality data at the retention pond indicated significant differences in 14 of 25 water-quality variables among sampling locations (surficial aquifer system, intermediate aquifer, pond and the control well), but mean concentrations in ground water below the pond were never significantly higher than in ground water from the control well. Analysis of variance results at other study areas indicated few significant differences in water quality among sampling locations.
Values of water-quality variables measured in ground water at all study areas generally were within drinking water standards. The few exceptions included pH (frequently lower than the limit of 6.5 at one pond and both swales), and iron, which frequently exceeded 300 micrograms per liter in ground water at one swale and the detention pond.
Large concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were measured in sediments at the retention pond but qualitative analysis of organic compounds in ground water from three wells indicated concentrations of only 1 to 5 micrograms per liter at one site, and below detection level (1 microgram per liter) at the other two sites. This may be an indication of immobilization of organic compounds in sediments.
Significant differences for most variables were indicated among ground-water quality data pooled by detention method. Nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were highest in ground water near swales and the exfiltration pipe, and Kjeldahl nitrogen was highest near ponds. Chromium, copper, and lead concentrations in ground water were frequently below detection levels at all study areas, and no significant differences among detention methods were detected for any metal concentration with the exception of iron. High iron concentrations in ground water near the detention pond and one swale most likely were naturally occurring and unrelated to highway runoff.
Results of the study indicate that natural processes occurring in soils attenuate inorganic constituents in runoff prior to reaching the receiving ground water. However, organic compounds detected in sediments at the retention pond indicate a potential problem that may eventually affect the quality of the receiving ground water.